The study documents the views and attitudes of French students, aged 14 or 15 years, about science and technology in society and are compared with a number of other studies and with the wider international context as revealed by other ROSE studies. Although the research reveals a number of gender differences in the French students’ responses, it is clear that these mirror those of students from other developed countries and contrast markedly with those of students from the developing world. The students’ opinions are also placed in the wider context of adult French citizens views about science, technology and society. It is suggested that many students appear to have a dichotomous view of science: a common view that they share with the society in which they live and western culture (here the students align with the adults) and a more personal view that reflects their individual lives, needs and desires (here they differ from adults and from other young people in developing countries). While the common view seems rooted on social values, the personal perspective is more linked to issues such as self-identity.